Sunday, November 25, 2007

Robeson County, NC Early Records


Native Americans
The Lumbee Indian Tribe of North Carolina comprises more than one-half the state of North Carolina's indigenous population of 84,000. With a population of 58,443, reflecting a 34.5% increase from the 1980 population of 43,465 members, the Lumbee reside primarily in Robeson, Hoke, Cumberland, and Scotland counties. In Robeson County alone, there are currently 46,869 Lumbee Indians out of a total county population of 123,339, and thus, the Lumbee make up 38.02%, making them the largest racial/ethnic group in the county. In fact, the Lumbee are also the largest tribal nation east of the Mississippi River, the ninth largest tribal nation, and the largest non-reservation tribe of Native Americans in the United States.

Several Lumbee communities are located within Robeson County, including Prospect, New Hope, Back Swamp, Pembroke, Saddletree, Raft Swamp, Deep Branch, Union Chapel, Evan's Cross Roads, and Red Banks.

The Lumber River as seen from the boat launch at Princess Ann near Orrum. Note the spanish moss on the cypress trees.

Archaeological excavation performed in Robeson County reveals a long and rich history of widespread and consistent occupation of the region, most especially near the Lumber River since the end of the last Ice Age. Local excavations indicate that Native American peoples made stone tools using materials brought into present-day Robeson County from the Carolina Piedmont. The large amounts of ancient pottery found at some Robeson County sites have been dated to the early Woodland period, and suggest that Native American settlements around the river were part of an extensive trade network with other regions. If anything, portions of the river basin show that Robeson County was a "zone of cultural interactions." After colonial contact, European-made items, such as kaolin tobacco pipes, were traded by the Spanish, French, and the English to Native American peoples of the coast, and found their way to the Robeson County region long before Europeans established permanent settlements along the Lumber River.

Swamps, streams, and artesian wells provided an excellent supply of water for Native peoples. Fish was plentiful, and the regions lush vegetation included numerous food crops. "Carolina bays" continue to dot the landscape, and, if the sheer number of 10,000 year old Clovis points found along their banks are any indication, Native peoples found these unique depressions filled with water to be ideal campsites.

Colonial Incursions
Early written sources specific to the Robeson County region are few for the post-contact period of European colonization. Surveyors for the Wineau factory charted a village of Waccamaw Indians on the Lumber River, a few miles west of the present-day town of Pembroke, North Carolina on a map in 1725. In 1754, North Carolina Governor Arthur Dobbs received a report from his agent, Col. Rutherford, the head of a Bladen County militia, that a "mixed crew" of 50 Indian families were living along Drowning Creek. The communication also reported the shooting of a surveyor who entered the area "to view vacant lands." These are the first written account of the Native peoples from whom the Lumbee descend.
Robeson County, NC came from Bladen County in 1787.

Robeson County, NC has long been noted as having a connection to the Lumbee Indians and to the families that resided in Moore Co., NC.

Robeson County Family Origins (
This is only a partial list as it relates to the Goins family

1654: Michael Gowen, a "negro" servant, was freed in York County.

Colonial Tax Lists
[Byrd, William L., III, Bladen County Tax Lists, 1768-1774, Volume I]. (Robeson was formed from Bladen in 1797).

1768, pp.4-9
Mulatoes: Rasses Goen

1770, pp.24-46
Molatoes: Frederick Goan & wife

"other free" heads of families in Robeson County:
1790 Robeson Census
Micajah Gainey Page 146
Nancy Gowing was married to Aaron Mahew January 30, 1792, according to “Robeson County, North Carolina Marriages, 1787-1850."
Free African Americans Named in the Robeson County Court Minutes

3 April, 1799 p.69 Ordered John Ford Esquire in South Carolina to take the deposition of Ann Gowen on behalf of James Terry vs. Willis Barfield
Notes on Ann from
She was in Cumberland County, North Carolina, in November 1761 when the court ordered her to "keep in her possession a Mulatto Boy which she now has in order that she may have him here next court" [Minutes 1759-65, 75].
William Gowan, age 11, was "bound to James Alford until he was 21," according to "Robeson County Wills, Adminis­tration and Orphans," File 83.301.1, page 37 as published in "North Carolina Genealogy Magazine," Winter 1973 edition. The item was part of the probate proceedings in the estate of Colin Campbell.
Free African Americans Named in the Robeson County Court Minutes

4 April, 1798 p.37
William Gowen bound apprentice to James Alford he being 11 years old
1800 Robeson Census
John Robeson Co, p 379
Oliva Robeson Co, p 381
Free African Americans Named in the Robeson County Court Minutes

6 April, 1802 p.193
Administration of estate of John Gowen granted Sarah Gowen

last will of John Gowen proved by Sampson Bridgers

2 July, 1805 p.329
Rrel? Taylor who was bail for John Gowing came into court & surrendered the said Gowing in discharge of said bail.
1810 Robeson Census
JNO - Robeson Co, p 232
JNO Jur - Robeson Co, p 239
JNO, Ser - Robeson Co, p 239
WM - Robeson Co, p 232
Free African Americans Named in the Robeson County Court Minutes

27 Jan 1810, Robeson Co, JOHN GOIN married Nancy Duncan. Bondsman: Magor Russell. Record: 083 01 051, (Kendall, Marriage Bonds, op cit)

20 August, 1812 p.326,
Deed Sarah Gowen to Elizabeth Gowen
1820 Robeson Census
WM-fcp, p 2, Robeson Co
Kitty Goins was married to Lewis Morgan January 19, 1829,
according to “Robeson County, North Carolina Marriages, 1787-1850." According to “North Carolina Marriage Bonds, 1741-1868,” record 1116, bondsman Findl Ivy, witness Neill Buie, Bond No. 117726, they were married January 29, 1829. Lewis Morgan was born abt 1808 and was the head of household of 4 fcp in 1820 in Cumberland Co., NC
1830 Robeson Census
John Guan Page 265
Free African Americans Named in the Robeson County Court Minutes

29 February, 1832 p.
Stephen Terry by his Guardian vs Wm Terry Garret Gowin & wife Nancy not inhabitants of this state publish in the N.C. Journal in Fayetteville

November 1832,
partition of lands (case of Garret Gowen p.153 but numbers discontinued

August 1833, Wednesday
Garett Gowin or Gowrin legatee of Revd Danl. Brown

February 1834
State vs Wm Goings

November 1837, Wednesday
Wm Goings bastardy Hannah Fields

From the Southern Campaign Revolutionary War Statements:
With permission from C. Leon Harris.

Pension application of George Kearsey (Cersey) R5801 fn20NC
Transcribed by Will Graves

State of North Carolina, Cumberland County:
Superior Court of Law Spring Term A.D. 1834
Honorable Henry Seawell Judge, Presiding

On this 5th day of May A.D. 1834 in Open Court George Kearsey or Cersey a resident of the County of Cumberland State aforesaid aged about 77 years appeared and being first sworn according to Law doth on his Oath make the following Declaration in order to entitle himself to the benefit of the Act of Congress passed 7th June 1832. That he entered the American Army during the Revolutionary War and served as herein after Stated. He entered the Army by enlistment in Bladen County North Carolina under Captain William Baker for sixteen months or during the War as a private Soldier, that he was marched by Captain Baker to the Town of Wilmington in this State where he was transferred to Captain Elias Fort's Company of which __ [blank in original] Clinton was Lieutenant from Wilmington he was marched to the Town of Newbern [sic, New Bern] to the Town of Halifax where the troops rendezvoused & was marched thence to the South by the Hanging Rock – Town of Camden South Carolina thence to Augusta Georgia thence to Briar Creek where we had a fight with the British and were defeated. General Ashe [John Ashe] of the North Carolina line Commanded at Briar Creek from Georgia he retreated into South Carolina & was marched thence to Charleston S. C. where he was stationed under Captain Fort up to the Siege of Charleston where he was taken prisoner & confined on board a Prison Ship until the Small Pox broke out when he was landed & he in company with John Witherford and Isaac Witherford made his escape & came into North Carolina where he joined the American Standard in Captain John Baxter's Company who had retreated from South Carolina & Joined Colonel Thomas Brown's Regiment in this State. After remaining a short time in North Carolina Captain Baxter marched back to South Carolina and joined Colonel Culp who joined General Francis Marion. After a few months service under Colonel Culp, he Colonel Culp returned home and was killed by the Tories said to be commanded by Mike Gowen and Thomas Gibson. Captain Baxter immediately went in pursuit of them, we found Mike Gowen at Cade's Mill in Robeson County in this State & he was shot. We again returned into South Carolina & marched to the fork of Black River in pursuit of the Tories Commanded by Colonel Gaston or Gaskins where we found them and defeated them Gaston or Gaskins was killed in this fight. General Marion commanded us [word obliterated by ink blot] then went to Laurel Hill & in pursuit of the British who retreated to Georgetown & took shipping to Charleston from Georgetown we then went to Scotch Lake Fort [1] which we captured I believe the Fort was commanded by Captain or Colonel Tynes in this fight John McDaniel a true Whig was killed for which some Tories were executed. Colonel Peter Oree [sic, Peter Horry] & Colonel Mayham or Moan [sic, Hezekiah Maham] was under General Marion in this battle. This place was also called “Rebel defiance” from this place we marched up the Country towards Camden South Carolina for the purpose of joining General Gates, before we could get to him he was defeated, after learning his defeat, we returned down the Santee, and continued to scour the Country under General Marion until General Green [sic, Nathanael Greene] arrived in South Carolina and took the Command of the troops. General Marion joined General Greene and I was under him in Captain John Black's Company in Colonel Horry's Regiment. Shortly after this, the Battle at Eutaw Springs was fought and I was in it. General Greene commanded our troops and Lord Rawdon commanded the British I believe we took two or 300 prisoners in this fight Colonel William Washington was taken by the British. The British retreated towards Charleston and we went in pursuit of them, as far as Laurel Hill South Carolina where we were stationed at the time we heard the news of Lord Cornwallis Surrender at Yorktown Virginia. After which the troops were discharged. He enlisted under Captain Baker in the month of August 1777. Before he enlisted under Captain Baker he served a tour of one month under Captain Shipman as a volunteer. He served as a regular soldier four years. He hereby relinquishes every claim whatever to a pension or annuity except the present and declares that his name is not on the Pension Roll of the Agency of any State.
[1 Applicant appears to be describing the siege of Fort. Watson (April 15-21, 1781) also known as Scott's Lake or Wright's

The following Answers were returned to the Interrogatories prescribed by the War Department:
1st I was Born in Bladen County State of North Carolina on the first day of September 17-- [blank in original].
2nd I have not.
3rd I was living in Bladen County. I have lived in Marion District South Carolina, for several years, was five years at Sea & the balance of the time I have lived in Robeson County in this State and in Cumberland where I now live.
4th I have already stated in my declaration.
5th In addition to those already mentioned, I would name General Lincoln who commanded at the Siege of Charleston, Doctor Piias [?] who was our Surgeon, Capt. Risboo [?], General Sumpter [sic, Thomas Sumter], Col. Hicks.
6th I received a discharge signed by Col. Baxter & General Marion. I gave it to Major Thomas J. Robeson some few years ago. He has since died & I have not been able to get it again.
7th I have just a few months since removed into this County. I would refer to Warren Alfird and William Thompson Esq. Of Robeson County.

S/ George Kearsey, X his mark

Sworn to & subscribed before
S/ Henry W. Ayer, Clerk

State of North Carolina, Robeson County
This may certify that James Alford then of said State and County personally appeared before me Jacob Alford a Justice of the peace for said County some time last January and made oath that George Kirsey [sic] was a Soldier in the revolutionary war, that he was with Captain Daniel Shipman, and he further states that he afterwards went to South Carolina and it was reported that he was with Col. Baxter & General Marion and he further stated that he the said Kirsey was between 70 & 75 years of age.

Certified by me this first day March 1833.
S/ Jac. Alford, JP

State of North Carolina, Cumberland County
This day James Hunt of the County of Robeson State aforesaid personally appeared before me, one of the Justices of the Peace in and for said County and made oath that he is well acquainted with George Kearsey of the County of Robeson and State aforesaid, that he knew said Kearsey during the Revolutionary War, that said Kearsey was in the Service of the United States under General Francis Marion in the State of South Carolina, that affiant believes the said Kearsey served two years in General Marion's Corps.

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 15th March 1834.
S/ James Hunt, X his mark
S/ S. Deminger, JP

State of North Carolina, County of Robeson
Personally appeared before me Jacob Alford one of the acting Justices of the peace for said County – James Alford and made oath that he is well acquainted with George Kirsey that he knew said Kirsey the time of the Revolutionary War and that he seen him in camp with a certain Captain Shipman in the Militia Service and that it was reported that he the said Kirsey was in the regular Service under Col. Baxter & General Marion.

Sworn to this eighth of June 1835.
Test: S/ Jac. Alford, JP S/ Jas Alford

State of North Carolina, Cumberland County
Personally appeared before me the undersigned a Justice of the Peace in & for the County & State aforesaid George Kearsey who being duly sworn Deposeth and saith that by reason of old age and the consequent loss of memory, he cannot swear positively as to the precise length of his service, but according to the best of his recollection he served not less than the periods mentioned below and in the following Grades (viz.) He served one month in the Militia Service under Captain Shipman – this was in 1777 as well as he recollects – immediately after he entered the service under Captain Baker and served under him for one month, when he was transferred to Captain Elias Fort's Company and actually served under him for nine months, when Captain Fort was taken sick in Charleston South Carolina returned home and died, after Captain Fort left I was placed under the command of Captain James Gragg, and served several months he thinks six, when Charleston was taken & he was taken prisoner. Captain Shipman was attached to Colonel Caswell's Regiment, Captain Fort's Company was attached to Colonel Armstrong's Regiment during the foregoing services he was a private. He was frequently in the service under General Francis Marion after that time though it is out of his power to state with precision the length of his several services otherwise than he has in his first Declaration, which if not satisfactory to the Department he must abandon his claim for them, and for which aforesaid specified Services I claim a Pension.

Sworn to & subscribed before me the 7th of November 1835.
S/ George Kearsey, X his mark
S/ Joseph Avey, JP

Original documents for the above can be viewed at Footnote.
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Nancy Goins was married to Hugh Oxendine December 23, 1837, according to “Robeson County, North Carolina Marriages, 1787-1850." The marriage is confirmed by “North Carolina Marriage Records, 1741-1868,” record 1123, bondsmen William Goins and Jervis H. Haman, witness James Storm, Bond No. 117822.

1840 Robeson Census
Olive Goings – Age 55-100 with 1 male age 36-55 (Maybe Mathew)
William Goings Age 55-100
Free African Americans Named in the Robeson County Court Minutes

22 November, 1841 p.
William Goings a freeman of Colour
1850 Robeson Census
Dwelling 344
William Goings b 1825

Dwelling 345
William Gowens Jr. b 1780
Sally Gowens b 1790
James Gowens b 1831
Allen Gowens b 1834
Mathew Gowens b 1810

Submitted by Jay Jacobs

JAMES GOINS (b 1823?) m. Levicy Jones in Robeson Co, NC on Nov 20, 1851

1860 Robeson Census
Dwelling 650
W Goins – 30
Nicy Goins – 32
Sallie J Goins – 16

Dwelling 857
Andrew Wist - 22
Helen Wist – 20
Polly Goins – 12
Florance Goins – 4
Simson Goins – 4
Infant Goins – 1

Dwelling 858
Wm Goins – 65
Sallie Goins – 55
Ellen – 23

Dwelling 859
James Goins – 28
Vicy Goins – 25
Thomas Goins – 5
Edmund Goins – 6
John Goins – 4
Jane Goins – 2
Jacob Gowins was married to Sarah Jane Gowins February 14, 1863, according to “Robeson County, North Carolina Marriages, 1787-1850." The marriage is confirmed by “North Carolina Marriage Bonds, 1741-1868,” record 1051, bondsman Elias Baxley, witness John A. Rowland, Bond 116784. The marriage was performed by Elias Baxley, JP. Children born to Jacob Gowins and Sarah Jane Gowins Gowins are unknown.

1870 Robeson County, NC Census

McEachins, Robeson County
Dwelling 44
Going, Turner - 23 - M - B - Turpentine Laborer - NC

Wishart, Robeson County
Dwelling 5
Goins, James – 48 – M – M – Trupentine Forman – NC
Goins, Visicy – 40 – F – M – NC
Goins, Thomas – 18 – M – M – NC
Goins, John – 15 – M – M – NC
Goins, Jane – 12 – F – M – NC
Goins, Catherine – 8 – F – M – NC
Goins, Mary E – 1 – F – M - NC

1880 Robeson County, NC Census

Back Swamp, Robeson County
Dwelling 98
Inman, Robt – 31 – NC – NC – NC
Inman, Roxanna – 29 – NC -NC – NC
Inman, Susan – 2 – NC – NC – NC
Inman, Susan – 68 – Mother – NC – NC – NC
Inman, Sarah – 40 – sister – NC – NC –NC
Gunn, John – 17 – Nephew – NC – NC - NC

Burnt Swamp, Robeson County
Dwelling 15
Goins, Rebecca – 40 – Widow – SC – SC – SC
Goins, Stephen – 24 – NC – NC – NC
Goins, Bettie – 21 – NC – NC – NC
Goins, N. Archie – 20 – NC – NC – NC
Goins, E. Laney – 16 – NC – NC – NC
Goins, Andrew Lee – 11 – NC – NC – NC
Goins, Mary Flora – 6 – NC – NC – NC

Howellsville, Robeson County
Guion, Hanable – 20 – Mulatto – NC – NC – NC
Others are living in the dwelling

Saint Pauls, Robeson County
Dwelling 180
Goins, Calder – 27 – Mulatto - NC – NC – NC
Goins, Sallie – 24 – Mulatto -NC – NC – NC
Goins, Orie J. – 7 months – Mulatto - NC – NC - NC

Smiths, Robeson County
Dwelling 155
Goings, William – 50 – Mulatto – NC – NC – NC
Goings, Elizabeth – 60 – Mulatto – NC – NC – NC
Goings, Sallie J. – 27 – Mulatto – NC – NC – NC
Goings, Harriet – 26 – Mulatto – NC – NC – NC
Goings, Florence – 22 – Mulatto – NC – NC – NC
Goings, Jane – 8 – Mulatto – NC – NC – NC
Goings, M – 3 – Mulatto – Granddaughter – NC – NC – NC
Goings, Harker – 3 – Mulatto – Grandson – NC – NC – NC

Sterlings Mills, Robeson County
Dwelling 4
Geones, John – 22 – NC – NC – NC
Geones, An – 18 – NC – NC – NC
Gones, Voney – 2 – NC – NC – NC

Dwelling 5
Gones, Marthy – 65 – NC – NC – NC
Gones, Bedy – 35 – NC – NC – NC
Gones, Edy – 30 – NC – NC – NC – NC
Gones, Adlye – 28 – NC – NC – NC
Gones, William – 26 – NC – NC – NC
Gones, Sallie J. – 25 – NC – NC – NC
Gones, Ranzy A. – 22 – NC – NC – NC
Gones, Mandy – 20 – NC – NC – NC

Dwelling 84
Sealy, John – 46 – NC – NC – NC
Sealy, Aby – 61 – NC – NC – NC
Gowin, Rozetty – 9 – - Mulatto - Granddaughter – NC – NC – NC

Dwelling 97
Gones, Marthy – 27 – NC – NC – NC
Gones, Elic – 6 – NC – NC – NC
Living with an Atkinson family.

Wisharts, Robeson County
Dwelling 50
Goins, John P – 23 – Making Turpentine – NC – NC – NC
Goins, Emaline – 20 – NC – NC – NC

Dwelling 52
Goins, James – 45 – House Builder – NC – NC – NC
Goins, Visa – 44 – NC – NC – NC
Goins, M Jane – 21 – NC – NC – NC
Goins, Mary M – 6 – NC – NC – NC
Goins, Robert S. – 4 – NC – NC – NC
Goins, Neila T. – 3 – NC – NC – NC

From the unpublished works by Jack Goins with permission.

W.B. Goins, vs. Board of Trustees Indian Normal School.
Filed October 12, 1915 in the Supreme Court of North Carolina.

Willie Goins testified that his father was William Goins. At this time Willie lived in Mallory, South Carolina and "the general reputation is we were Indian, we came from Cumberland County, North Carolina."

Deposition of William Goins introduced on the part of the Plaintiff. "I am the father of W.W. Goins (Willie) and W.B.. Goins the Plaintiffs. I'm going on 68 years of age; am a minister of the gospel. I have lived in Sumpter County most of my life they have always called us after Indian "red bones" and been raised so. There has been some reputation in our family that we were some relations to the Croatan Indians, my grandfather’s name was Fred Goins."

Lizzie Brown testified: "I am a sister to the plaintiffs. I was raised in Sumpter County, South Carolina. We are Indians in the north, but they gave us the name "Red Bones" down there. The reputation is, there is no Negro blood is any of us."

Myer Giddine, witness for the plaintiff, testified as follows: I live in Privateer Township, Sumpter County, South Carolina I live about 1/4 mile from William Goins, father of the Plaintiffs. for thirty years. The only talk I ever heard about the race of people the Plaintiff was that they were Indians. heard that talk ever since I was big enough to remember it. The mother of the plaintiff has long black hair.

Gaston Locklear testified for the defense. "I am a member of the board of trustees of the Cherokee Indian Normal School of Pembroke. I was not a member when some of these people were first permitted to attend the school. After this question arose I made an investigation about the time we were getting ready to exclude them or to pass on the question. I went to Sumpter County, South Carolina in the eastern part of Sumpter County. I went for the purpose of asserting what the general reputation was as to these people and to find out whether they were entitled to go to our school and saw a right smart of people. I have seen William Goins, the father of these plaintiffs. From my knowledge of the Indian people here and from my observation of him (William) he is not an Indian.
Q-Being appointed by member of the board state what you did for the purpose of ascertaining what the general reputation was down there?
A- I went to find out if they were entitled to go to our schools. Q-From this investigation you made what do you say is the general reputation as to whether or not they are people of Negro Blood. A-Their general reputation is they are colored people.
Q-Have you seen William Goins father of the Plaintiffs?
A-I have, and who they said was their father.
Q-From your general knowledge of the Indian people here and from your observation of him, state whether or not in your opinion he is a man of Negro blood.
A-He is of Negro blood.


  1. Hi,

    Just saw your Goins/Lumbee Web page, and I commend you for your work.

    You probably already know, but wanted to drop this information to you just in case. William Goins of Robeson Co NC was married to Elizabeth Lowrey, a sister of Henry Berry Lowery/Lowrie. They both lived to be over 100 years old.

    Sam West
    Lumberton, Robeson Co NC

    "Not all of us can do great things, but we all can do small things in a great way."
    author unknown

  2. Hi my name is Chandra Oxentine Kastrup. I am looking for any thing that might be of help. Any one with any information on the Oxentine or Oxendine name please help!! I am looking for my gg grandfathers Dad. My grandfather is the late Carroll Junior Oxentine, born in 1933 and died in 1989. His parents Jennie Lynn Oxentine, birth and death im unsure of, and William Oxentine , who was born in 1906 and died in 1959. Williams mother was Martha Jane Oxendine also know as Mattie Mae, was born 1852 and died in 1935, and his father Michael Oxentine was born in 1887. It is said our family have lumbee hertiage and i would like to be able to find out anything i can. Also any help finding outanything out, like who Martha Jane's parents was! My email is

  3. Digital Library on American Slavery

    Petition 21286202 Details
    Location: Robeson, North Carolina
    Salutation: To the Honorable Robert S. French one of the Judges of the Superior Courts of Law & Equity, of the State aforesaid (FRENCH, Robert S.)
    Filing Court and Date: Superior, 1862-November-27
    Ending Court and Date: Superior, 1862-November-27
    General Petition Information
    Abstract: In 1857, free black JACOB GOINS was indicted and convicted of petty larceny in Cumberland County for stealing an iron pot worth six pence. Sentenced to be hired out for five years, GOINS fell into the hands of slave trader D. J. Southerland, who "frequently offered his negroes for sale & persons came & examined him with a view to purchasing him." Believing it was Southerland's intention to sell him "into perpetual slavery," he escaped. Now under arrest as a fugitive, he seeks a writ of habeas corpus.
    Result: granted
    # of Petition Pages: 2
    Related Documents: Writ of Habeas Corpus, 27 November 1862; Copy of Petition, JACOB GOINS, 27 November 1862; Copy of Bill of Indictment, March 1858; Subpoena, 4 March 1858; Copy of Writ of Habeas Corpus, 27 November 1862
    Pages of Related Documents: 7 Petition 21283309 Details




    PUBLIC IS WELCOME * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


    At 2pm on Saturday, May 2nd, the guest speaker at the Robeson County
    Historical and Genealogical Society monthly meeting in Lumberton will be
    William V. Pate, resident of Hope Mills and author of “*The Survival of the
    Lost Colony: The Untold Story*”. The public is invited to attend and to
    purchase an autographed copy of Mr. Pate’s book at a reduced price.

    Mr. Pate examines the suppositions given for the disappearance of members of
    Sir Walter Raleigh’s colony on North Carolina’s Roanoke Island in 1587. Most
    historians have theorized that, after they stayed behind when their ships
    sailed back to England for supplies, the colonists were murdered by hostile
    savages [meaning unChristian people] or died of starvation. Most North
    Carolinians hold to the theory that these colonists survived by being
    assimilated into the local Croatoan Indian tribe.

    In his 33 years of research, Mr. Pate examined countless documents of the
    period, many written by men of authority on the expedition. His book
    provides verbatim transcriptions followed by his comments on the insights
    they provide for solving this mystery.

    The author’s prints and lists of the people & places connected to this
    colonization are an unexpected benefit for readers. He includes tales handed
    down by local Indians that Virginia Dare, the first person born in the
    Roanoke colony, lies buried near the base of a several-hundred-years-old
    tree in Robeson County. Of special interest to Robesonians will be the DNA
    project that many expect to provide a definitive answer to part of this old
    American mystery.

    The program will be held in the O.P. Owens Agriculture Center Auditorium at
    455 Caton Road, which is just west of Interstate 95 between Highways 72 and
    711 in Lumberton (next to the Robeson County Health Department). To
    accommodate the public, the speaker will precede the meeting.

    Sam West